Sunday, January 25, 2015

1. Gyan Mudra (Mudra of Knowledge):


Touch the tip of the thumb to the tip of the index finger, with the other three fingers stretched out.


As it is a mudra of knowledge, it enhances the knowledge. The tip of thumb has centers of pituitary and endocrine glands. When we press these centers by index finger the two glands work actively.

Time duration:

There is no particular time duration for this mudra. You can practice by sitting, standing or lying on bed whenever and wherever you have time.


• Increases memory power and sharpens the brain

• Enhances concentration and prevents Insomnia

• If we practice it regularly, it will cure all psychological disorders like Mental, Hysteria, Anger and Depression

2. Prithvi Mudra (Mudra of Earth):


Tip of the ring finger touches the tip of the thumb, with the other three fingers stretched out.


It reduces all physical weaknesses.

Time Duration:

It has no particular time duration. You can practice it any time you want.


• It helps to increase the weight for weak people

• It improves the complexion of skin and makes the skin to glow

• It makes the body active by keeping it healthy

3. Varuna Mudra (Mudra of Water):


Tip of little finger touches the tip of thumb, with the other three fingers stretched out.


It balances the water content and prevents all diseases which come due to lack of water.

Time Duration:

It has no specific time duration and one can practice it according to their time.


• It retains clarity in blood by balancing water content in the body

• Prevents the pains of Gastroenteritis and Muscle Shrinkage

4.Vayu Mudra (Mudra of Air):


Keep the index finger on the base of the thumb and press with thumb keeping the other three fingers straight.


It prevents all the diseases that occur due to the imbalance of the air.

Time Duration:

The practice of this mudra for 45 minutes reduces the severity of the disease in 12 to 24 hours. For better results practice it for two months.


• It cures Rheumatism, Arthritis, Gout, Parkinson's disease and paralysis without any medicine

• It is useful for Cervical Spondilytis, paralysis to face and catching of nerve in neck

• It corrects the disorder of gas in the stomach

5.Shunya Mudra (Mudra of Emptiness):


Keep the middle finger at the mount of Venus and press it with thumb.


It reduces the dullness in our body.

Time Duration:

One can practice it for 40 to 60 minutes daily until to be cured from the disease.


• It relieves an earache within 4 or 5 minutes

• It is useful for the deaf and mentally challenged, but not for inborn ones.

6.Surya Mudra (Mudra of Sun):


Bend the ring finger and press it with thumb.


It sharpens the center in thyroid gland.

Time Duration:

Practice it daily twice for 5 to 15 minutes.


• It reduces cholesterol in body and helps in reducing weight

• It reduces anxiety

• It corrects indigestion problems

7.Prana Mudra (Mudra of Life):


Bend ring finger and little finger and touch the tip of thumb with their tips keeping the remaining two fingers stretched.


As it is the mudra of life, it improves the power of life. Weak people become strong. It reduces the clamps in blood vessels. If we practice it regularly, we will become active.

Time Duration:

No specific time duration. One can practice it any time.


• It improves immunity

• Improves the power of eyes and reduces eye related diseases

• It removes the vitamin deficiency and fatigue

8. Apana Mudra (Mudra of Digestion):


The tips of middle finger and ring finger touch the tip of thumb while the other two fingers are stretched out.


It plays an important role in our health as it regulates the excretory system.

Time Duration:

Practice it daily for 45 minutes, but practice for longer time yields more benefits.


• It regulates diabetes

• It cures constipation and piles

• It helps excreting the normal waste regularly

9. Apana Vayu Mudra (Mudra of Heart):


The tips of the middle finger and ring finger touch the tip of thumb, while the index finger touches the base of thumb and little finger stretched out.


It benefits the heart. It works like injection in the reduction of heart attack. It is as powerful as sorbitate tablet. It reduces the gas content in body.

Time Duration:

Practice it as many times as you can. Heart patients and BP patients can practice it for 15 minutes daily twice for better results.


• It strengthens the heart and regularizes palpitation

• It regulates excretory system

• It redeems gastric trouble

10. Linga Mudra (Mudra of Heat):


Interlock the fingers of both the hands and keep the thumb of the left hand vertically straight and encircle it with the thumb and the index finger of the right hand..


It generates heat in our body. Take milk, ghee, more water and fruit juices in addition to practice of this mudra for much benefits.

Time Duration:

Practice it any time you want. But don't practice it a lot as it produces heat in the body. It can cause sweating even in winter if you practice it longer.


• It stops production of phlegm and gives power to lungs

• It cures severe cold and bronchial infection

• It invigorates the body

Dependency Determination

Dependency characterized by the following attributes:
Mandatory or Discretionary
Internal or external

Contingency Reserves:

Contingency Reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed.
Contingency Reserves are associated with "known-unknowns".

Contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis method such as Monte Carlo simulation.

Management Reserves:

Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project.

Management reserve are intended to address the "unknown-unknowns" that can affect a project.

Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline of the project, but it is overall part of the project duration requirements.


The resource-constrained critical path is known as critical chain.

Critical chain method uses the concept of buffers and buffer management.

Buffer placed at the end of the critical chain is known as the project buffer and it protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain.

Additional buffers known as feeding buffers are placed at each point.

Feeding buffers protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains.


Resource leveling and Resource Smoothing

Modeling techniques:

What-If Scenario Analysis

Schedule compression

Crashing - by adding resources
Fast tracking - activities or phases are performed in parallel.


Schedule Baseline

Performance reviews:

Trend analysis
Critical path method
Critical chain method
Earned value management:

Project Integration Management - PMBOK

PIM includes the processes and ativities to identify, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process groups.

Develop Project Charter
The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

Key benefits:
  well-defined project start and project boundaries
  creation of formal record of the project
  direct way for senior management to formally accept and commit to the project

Project charter inputs for:
    Plan Scope management, Collect requirements, Define scope, Plan Schedule management, Plan Cost management, Plan Risk management, identify stakeholders, Develop Project management plan.

Authorized by the sponsoring entity.  Project manager participates in the development of project charter.

Projects initiated by external entity to the project such as Sponsor, program or project management office (PMO) staff person, or a portfolio governing body chairperson or authorized representative.

Projects are initiated due to internal needs or external influences.

Project charter is not a contract.


Project Statement of work:  narrative description of products, services or results to be delivered by a project.
    Business need (market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, government regulation or environmental consideration) / Product scope description / Strategic plan

Business case:

Agreements:  initial intentions of the project.  may take  the form of contracts, memorandum of understandings (mous), service level agreement (sla), letter of agreements, letters of intent, verbal agreements, email  or other written agreements.  Typically contract is used when being peformed by an external customer.

Enterprise environmental factors:
Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment :
Facilitation Techniques : Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management.


Project charter: issued by the project initiator or sponsor and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

  • Project purpose or justification
  • Measurable project objectives and related success criteria
  • High-level requirements
  • Assumptions and constraints
  • High-level project description and boundaries
  • High-level risks
  • Summary milestone schedule
  • Summary budget 
  • Stakeholder list
  • Project approval requirements
  • Assigned project manager, responsibility and authority level
  • Name and authority of the sponsor or other persons authoring the project charter

Develop Project Management plan

The process of defining, preparing and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan. integrated baselines and subsidiary plans may be included within the project management plan.

Input to
  • Plan Scope management
  • Validate scope
  • Control scope
  • Plan schedule management
  • Control schedule
  • Plan cost management
  • Control costs
  • Plan Quality management
  • Plan Human resource management
  • Plan communications management
  • Control communications
  • Plan risk management
  • Control risks
  • Plan procurement management
  • Control procurement
  • Close procurement
  • Plan stakeholder management
  • Control stakeholder engagement


Project charter:
Outputs from other processes:
  • Communications management plan
  • Cost management plan
  • Human management plan
  • Procurement management plan
  • Process Improvement plan
  • Quality management plan
  • Requirements management plan
  • Risk management plan
  • Schedule management plan
  • Scope management plan
  • Stakeholder management plan
  • Cost baseline
  • Schedule baseline
  • Scope baseline
  • Project management plan updates
Enterprise Environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment:
Facilitation techniques:Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management.


Project management plan
Direct and Manage Project Work
The process of leading and performing the work defined in the pmp and implementing approved changes to achieve the project's objectives.


Project management plan
Approved change requests
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Project management information system


Work performance data
Change requests
Project management plan updates
Project document updates

Monitor and Control Project Work
The process of tracking, reviewing and reporting project progress against the performance objectives defined in the pmp.


Project management plan
Schedule forecasts
Cost forecasts
Validated changes
Work performance information
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Analytical techniques
Project management information system


Change requests
Work performance reports
Project management plan updates
Project document updates


Perform Integrated Change Control
The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and the pmp; and communicating their disposition.


Project management plan
Work performance reports
Change requests

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Change control board


Approved change requests
Change log
Project management plan updates
Project document updates

Close Project or Phase
The process of finalizing all activities across all the pm process groups to formally complete the phase or project.


Project management plan
Accepted deliverables

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Analytical Techniques


Final Product, service or result transition
Organizational process assets updates

Important Points VI

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by severity or determination of the effect of failures on the system.

Categories of Forecasting: (

Time series method uses historical data as the basis of estimating future outcomes.
Weighted moving average, Moving average, Kalman filtering, Exponential smoothing, Autoregressive moving average (ARMA), Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), Extrapolation, Linear prediction, Trend estimation, Growth curve

Qualitative vs Quantitative methods

Naive approach

Casual / econometric forecasting methods

Judgmental methods

Artificial Intelligence methods

Net Present value of Zero is Break-even, positive is profit and negative is loss.

Quality Assurance department verifies the compliance of projects against the organization's defined policies and processes. This is a proactive and preventive role.

Manage stakeholder engagement process tools and techniques are Communication methods, Interpersonal skills and management skills.

Develop project team has two outputs -> Team performance assessments and Enterprise environmental factors.

Procurement Performance reviews are conducted during the control Procurements process to review the seller's progress towards delivering on project scope, quality, cost and schedule as compared to the contract.  These reviews can be conducted based on Audits and Inspections.

Smoothing (or Accommodating) concentrates on emphasizing areas of agreements rather than areas of difference.

Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practice within an application area.

The close project or phase has two outputs, the final product or service or result transition, and organizational process assets updates.

Close Procurements is an output of Close procurement process.

The probability of achieving cost and time objectives is determined and documented during the perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process.

Hardship clause is sometimes used in relation to Force Majeure, particularly due to the fact that they share similar features and they both cater to situations of changed circumstances.

Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is the inverse of Cost Benefit ratio.

A risk arising as a result of implementing a Risk Response plan for a different risk is called  Secondary risk.

Residual risk is risk that remains from the initial risk after a Risk Response plan has been implemented.

Project charter does not require a change request.

Deflection or transfer of risk to another party is a type of Strategy for negative risks.

TCPI greater than 1 means hard to complete.

A complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional field, project management field or an area of specialization is known as Knowledge area.

Summary Budget is arrived at during the Initiation phase of the project. (Project charter)

Historical records during closing are useful to Predict trends, and highlight problems for future projects.

Definitive terms of a contract are written during the Award phase.

Reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the possibility of its occurrence is Risk Avoidance.

Gantt charts are great for Tracking actual vs planned and Optimum Resource utilization.  Gantt charts gives quick insights into task schedules and resource utilizations.

Design of Experiments (DOE) identifies which factors may influence specific variables of a process or product.

The purposes of quality audit is to identify lessons learned that can improve performance on the project.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

Important Points - V

Change requests can occur due to : an external event such as a change in government regulation, An error or omission in defining the scope of the product, An error or omission in defining the scope of the project.

Project Management Plan is A formal, approved document used to guide project execution, monitoring, and control.

The most important criteria in deciding to initiate a project selection method is Environmental consideration.

Important Points IV

Historical information, Risk control procedures and Organizational policies are Organizational Process Assets and not environmental factors.

A "no-contest clause" also called an "In Terrorem clause", is a clause in a legal document that is designed to threaten someone, usually with litigation or criminal prosecution, into acting, refraining from acting, or ceasing to act. 

As a Project manager, you are responsible for not only being honest in all your actions but also for exposing dishonest transactions when you encounter them and for notifying the proper authorities so that disciplinary actions can be taken against the offenders.

"Rule of Seven" - Seven data points in a row falling on one side of the mean

Manage Stakeholder Engagement process contains four inputs : Stakeholder Management plan, Communications Management plan, Change log, Organizational Process assets.

Bidder conference also known as pre-bid conference, vendor conference or contract conference.

Cost Management plan, Schedule Management plan, Quality management plan and Scope baseline are inputs to the Identify risks process.

Seller Proposals are normally evaluated by a multi-discipline committee with expertise in many different areas (Expert judgment).

The project management team is responsible for project management while the project team is responsible for project execution.

The important thing to remember is any time an issue arises, you should immediately document the issue in the issue log and monitor the issue until it has been resolved.

Staffing management plan lists recognition and reward criteria.

Sunk cost is unrecoverable cost.

Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect Project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction, quality and risks.  It could also result in probability of success and ultimately in project cancellation.

Crashing is a schedule compression technique that is performed by allocating more resources or approved by over time.

Business need and Cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case and are used to justify the project.  Business case eg:  legal requirement, customer request, technological advance

Observation and Conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of the project team members.  The project management team monitors the project team's progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members and interpersonal issues.

Analogous estimate is generally less costly , less time consuming and less accurate.

Project management plan should be updated for any changes in scope, cost and schedule baselines after a change request is approved but before it is implemented.

Manage Communications plan has 4 inputs : Communication management plan, work performance reports, EEF, OPA

Corrective action is an activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan.

Risk avoidance involves changing the Project management plan to avoid threat entirely.  The most extreme avoidance strategy is to terminate the project.

Run charts show trends of processes and variation over time and can be used for analyzing technical, cost or schedule performance.  Similar to control charts but lack upper and lower control limits.

Correspondence between the buyer and seller will result in Organizational Process assets.

A Status Report is a formal and official document used to communicate with stakeholders.

Schedule performance measurements, such as Schedule Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original schedule baseline.

group-decision making techniques -> Plurality, Unanimity, Dictatorship and Majority.

Level of effort (LOE) is a support-type activity. (eg. seller or customer liaison activity, project cost accounting activity, project management activity)

Scoring models -> benefit measurement method (

Plan communication management is the process of determining project stakeholder information needs and defining a communications approach.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Procurement Management - Tools and Techniques - PMBOK

Make or buy analysis
Expert judgment
Market research

Bidder conference
Proposal evaluation techniques
Independent estimates
Expert judgment
Analytical techniques
Procurement negotiations

Contract change control system
Procurement performance reviews
Inspections and audits
Performance reporting
Payment systems
Claims administration
Records management system

Procurement audits
Procurement negotiations