Sunday, February 1, 2015

Group creativity & Group Decision-making Techniques

Group creativity
  • Brainstorming-generate and collect multiple ideas related to project.
  • Nominal group technique-enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank ideas
  • Idea/mind mapping-ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions consolidated into single map
  • Affinity diagram-large number of ideas into groups for review and analysis
  • Multicriteria decision analysis-technique that utilizes decision tree matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainity and valuation to evaluate and rank may ideas.
Group Decision-making

  • Unanimity - everyone agrees on a single course of action.  One way to reach unanimity is Delphi technique
  • Majority - decision reached with support from more than 50% of the members of the group.
  • Plurality - a largest block in group decides
  • Dictatorship - one individual makes the decision

Analytical techniques

Analytical techniques are applied in project management to forecast outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables.


  • Regression Analysis
  • Grouping methods
  • Casual analysis
  • Root cause analysis
  • Forecasting methods (eg. time series,scenario building, simulation etc.)
  • Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
  • Fault tree analysis (FTA)
  • Reserve analysis
  • Trend analysis
  • Earned value management
  • Variance analysis

Cost baseline

Cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget, but excludes management reserves.

Can only be changed through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.

Developed as a summation of approved budgets for different schedule activities.

Management reserves are added to the Cost baseline to produce the project budget.

Cost Forecasts are derived from progress against the cost baseline and computed estimates to complete (ETC).  Typically expressed in terms of Cost variance (CV) and cost performance index (CPI).

An estimate to completion (EAC) can be compared to budget at completion (BAC) to see if the project is still within tolerance ranges of if a change request is required.

Schedule baseline

Management reserve is not included in the Schedule baseline.

A schedule baseline is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used for comparison to actual results.  Accepted and approved by the appropriate stakeholders as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates.

During monitoring and controlling, the approved baseline dates are compared to the actual start and finish dates to determine whether variances have occurred.

Component of Project management plan.

Schedule Forecasts are derived from progress against the schedule baseline and computed time estimate to complete (ETC).  This is typically expressed in terms of Schedule variance (SV) and Schedule performance index (SPI).

Scope baseline

Scope baseline for the project is the approved version of the project scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS) and its associated WBS dictionary.  A baseline can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison while performing Validate Scope and Control Scope processes.

Scope baseline is an output of Create WBS process.

Requirements include:

  • conditions or capabilities that are to be met by the project or present in the product, service  or result 
  • include the quantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
Project Scope statement includes the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions and constraints.

WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.

A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement.

WBS dictionary a document that provides detailed deliverable, activity and scheduling information about each component in the WBS.
  • Code of account identifier
  • Description of work
  • Assumptions and constraints
  • Responsible organization
  • Schedule milestones
  • Associated schedule activities
  • Resources required
  • Cost estimates
  • Quality requirements
  • Acceptance criteria
  • Technical references
  • Agreement information