Saturday, January 31, 2015

Important points VII

Independent Estimates - For many procurement items, the procuring organization may elect to have an estimate of costs prepared by an outside professional estimator if these estimates cannot be accurately created in house.

Sensitivity Analysis helps to determine which risks have the most potential impact in the project.  It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the overall project objectives when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values.

Earned value is the value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for an activity or work breakdown structure component.  EV is often used to calculate the percentage completion of a project.

Communications Management Plan describes how Project communications will be carried out on the project.  CMP contains information about the issue escalation process and the time frame for resolving issues.

Request for Proposal (RFP) and Request for Information (RFI), both are created by the buyer.

Manage Project team is the process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.

It has six inputs:

  • Issue log
  • Project staff assignments
  • Human resource management plan
  • Team performance assessments
  • Work performance reports
  • Organizational process assets


Modern Quality Management emphasizes the importance of the following:

  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Prevention over inspection
  • Continuous improvement
  • Management responsibility

Risk related contract decisions, such as agreements for insurance, services and other items as appropriate are selected in Plan Risk Responses process.

CPI is a measure of Cost efficiency.

Total float is the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.

Free float is the amount of time that a scheduled activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint.

Control schedule is the process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline.  This process is included in the Monitoring and Controlling process group.  During the Monitor and control project work process, all project work is monitored and controlled, including approved changes and defect repairs.

There are 5 stages of Team development
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjouring.

In the storming phase the team is in conflict as they begin to address the project work, technical work and project management approach.

In the norming stage, team members begin to work together and adjust their work habits to support the team.

When a team performs as an organized unit, it is in the Performing stage of team development.  In this stage issues are resolved smoothly and effectively between team members.

Issue log, Change log ->  Issue log first, change log next
Perform Integrated change control and Monitor and control project work process 

In all procurement relationships, the ideal method of finalizing all outstanding issues, claims and disputes is through negotiation.

Whenever, settlement cannot be achieved through direct negotiation between a buyer and a seller, some form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), such as mediation or arbitration may be explored.

When all else fails, litigation in the courts is possible but is considered the least desirable option.

Documentation resulting from the project's activities is stored in Project files.

Formal documentation that indicates the completion of the project or phase is stored in project closure documents.

Authority (Power) and Involvment (influence)

Staff acquisition is part of the staff Management plan.  Staff acquisition records planning activities in acquiring a project team such as the location of team members and the costs associated with each level of expertise.

Scatter diagram shows the relationship between two variables.  identify the possible relationship between changes observed for two variables.  Dependent vs Independent variables are plotted.

In a weak organization matrix the project manager should consult their concerns with functional managers.

Plan Quality management process is performed in parallel with the Develop Project management plan process.

Cost Reimbursable contracts are used when scope cannot be precisely defined.

A Preventive action is an intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project is in line with the Project Management plan.

Cost Management plan establishes the level of accuracy such as the rounding of the data with regard to cost.

Existing information related to human resources is available in Enterprise Environmental factors.  These factors contains the availability, competency levels, prior experience and cost rate of human resources.

Requirements documentation contains acceptance criteria, assumptions, quality requirements, support and training requirements.

Requirements trace-ability matrix helps track requirements throughout the life cycle to ensure approved requirements are delivered at the end of the project.

First step in controlling costs is to perform the Reserve Analysis.  This is done to monitor the status of reserves.

The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes the schedule activities necessary to meet the project objectives.

The control Schedule process is used to monitor the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

Sensitivity Analysis is carried out during the perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process.  One typical display of Sensitivity Analysis is the Tornado diagram, which is useful for comparing the relative importance and impact of variables that have a high degree of uncertainty to those that are more stable.

Typically the business need and the cost-benefit analysis are included in the Business Case to justify the project.

Force field analysis is a technique used in quality planning.  Force field analysis focus on the driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or restraining movement toward the goal (hindering forces).

Influence diagram and Force field analysis are very closely related techniques.

Enterprise Environmental factors is an input to the Acquire project team process and contains elements such as prior experience, interest in working on the project, cost rates and availability of potential team members.

A functional manager is focused on providing management oversight for an administrative area, where as an operational manager is responsible for a facet of the core business.  A project manager manages a project and an administrative manager manages administrative tasks.

Earned value management (EMV) in its various forms is a commonly used method of performance measurement.  It integrates project scope, cost and schedule measurements to help the project management team assess and measure project performance and progress.  It is a project management technique that requires the formation of an integrated baseline against which performance can be measured for the duration of the project.

Process analysis follows the steps outlined in the Process improvement plan to identify  necessary improvements.   This analysis also examines problems experienced, constraints experienced, and non-value added activities identified during process operation.


Deliverable Oriented WBS

A deliverable oriented WBS provides many benefits for a project team, including the following:


  • Better communication to project sponsors, stakeholders and team members
  • More accurate estimation of tasks, timelines and costs
  • Increased confidence that 100% of the work is identified and included
  • A foundation for the control of processes within the project
Having a  good, deliverable-oriented WBS does not eliminate the need for a Scope Management plan.



Thursday, January 29, 2015

Motivational theories

Douglas McGregor proposed Theory X and Theory Y

Motivation-Hygine theory

Frederick Herzberg believed that the two aspects to the work environment are hygine and motivation.

Hygiene factors are Policies, Adminstration, Working conditions, Salary, Status, Supervision, Security.

Motivation factors are Achievement, Recognition, Growth, Advancement, Interest in the job, Job challenge.

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

Physiological, Safety/security, Social, Esteem, Self Actualization

ERG Theory : Existence, Relatedness, Growth

McClelland's theory of needs:

Power, Achievement, Affiliation

Vroom's Expectancy theory

Effort -> Job performance -> Rewards


Sunday, January 25, 2015

1. Gyan Mudra (Mudra of Knowledge):

Method:

Touch the tip of the thumb to the tip of the index finger, with the other three fingers stretched out.

Specialty:

As it is a mudra of knowledge, it enhances the knowledge. The tip of thumb has centers of pituitary and endocrine glands. When we press these centers by index finger the two glands work actively.

Time duration:

There is no particular time duration for this mudra. You can practice by sitting, standing or lying on bed whenever and wherever you have time.

Benefits:

• Increases memory power and sharpens the brain

• Enhances concentration and prevents Insomnia

• If we practice it regularly, it will cure all psychological disorders like Mental, Hysteria, Anger and Depression

2. Prithvi Mudra (Mudra of Earth):

Method:

Tip of the ring finger touches the tip of the thumb, with the other three fingers stretched out.

Specialty:

It reduces all physical weaknesses.

Time Duration:

It has no particular time duration. You can practice it any time you want.

Benefits:

• It helps to increase the weight for weak people

• It improves the complexion of skin and makes the skin to glow

• It makes the body active by keeping it healthy

3. Varuna Mudra (Mudra of Water):

Method:

Tip of little finger touches the tip of thumb, with the other three fingers stretched out.

Specialty:

It balances the water content and prevents all diseases which come due to lack of water.

Time Duration:

It has no specific time duration and one can practice it according to their time.

Benefits:

• It retains clarity in blood by balancing water content in the body

• Prevents the pains of Gastroenteritis and Muscle Shrinkage

4.Vayu Mudra (Mudra of Air):

Method:

Keep the index finger on the base of the thumb and press with thumb keeping the other three fingers straight.

Specialty:

It prevents all the diseases that occur due to the imbalance of the air.

Time Duration:

The practice of this mudra for 45 minutes reduces the severity of the disease in 12 to 24 hours. For better results practice it for two months.

Benefits:

• It cures Rheumatism, Arthritis, Gout, Parkinson's disease and paralysis without any medicine

• It is useful for Cervical Spondilytis, paralysis to face and catching of nerve in neck

• It corrects the disorder of gas in the stomach

5.Shunya Mudra (Mudra of Emptiness):

Method:

Keep the middle finger at the mount of Venus and press it with thumb.

Specialty:

It reduces the dullness in our body.

Time Duration:

One can practice it for 40 to 60 minutes daily until to be cured from the disease.

Benefits:

• It relieves an earache within 4 or 5 minutes

• It is useful for the deaf and mentally challenged, but not for inborn ones.

6.Surya Mudra (Mudra of Sun):

Method:

Bend the ring finger and press it with thumb.

Specialty:

It sharpens the center in thyroid gland.

Time Duration:

Practice it daily twice for 5 to 15 minutes.

Benefits:

• It reduces cholesterol in body and helps in reducing weight

• It reduces anxiety

• It corrects indigestion problems

7.Prana Mudra (Mudra of Life):

Method:

Bend ring finger and little finger and touch the tip of thumb with their tips keeping the remaining two fingers stretched.

Specialty:

As it is the mudra of life, it improves the power of life. Weak people become strong. It reduces the clamps in blood vessels. If we practice it regularly, we will become active.

Time Duration:

No specific time duration. One can practice it any time.

Benefits:

• It improves immunity

• Improves the power of eyes and reduces eye related diseases

• It removes the vitamin deficiency and fatigue

8. Apana Mudra (Mudra of Digestion):

Method:

The tips of middle finger and ring finger touch the tip of thumb while the other two fingers are stretched out.

Specialty:

It plays an important role in our health as it regulates the excretory system.

Time Duration:

Practice it daily for 45 minutes, but practice for longer time yields more benefits.

Benefits:

• It regulates diabetes

• It cures constipation and piles

• It helps excreting the normal waste regularly

9. Apana Vayu Mudra (Mudra of Heart):

Method:

The tips of the middle finger and ring finger touch the tip of thumb, while the index finger touches the base of thumb and little finger stretched out.

Specialty:

It benefits the heart. It works like injection in the reduction of heart attack. It is as powerful as sorbitate tablet. It reduces the gas content in body.

Time Duration:

Practice it as many times as you can. Heart patients and BP patients can practice it for 15 minutes daily twice for better results.

Benefits:

• It strengthens the heart and regularizes palpitation

• It regulates excretory system

• It redeems gastric trouble

10. Linga Mudra (Mudra of Heat):

Method:

Interlock the fingers of both the hands and keep the thumb of the left hand vertically straight and encircle it with the thumb and the index finger of the right hand..

Specialty:

It generates heat in our body. Take milk, ghee, more water and fruit juices in addition to practice of this mudra for much benefits.

Time Duration:

Practice it any time you want. But don't practice it a lot as it produces heat in the body. It can cause sweating even in winter if you practice it longer.

Benefits:

• It stops production of phlegm and gives power to lungs

• It cures severe cold and bronchial infection

• It invigorates the body

Dependency Determination

Dependency characterized by the following attributes:
Mandatory or Discretionary
Internal or external

-----
Contingency Reserves:

Contingency Reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed.
Contingency Reserves are associated with "known-unknowns".

Contingency reserve may be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis method such as Monte Carlo simulation.

-----
Management Reserves:

Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project.

Management reserve are intended to address the "unknown-unknowns" that can affect a project.

Management reserve is not included in the schedule baseline of the project, but it is overall part of the project duration requirements.

---------------

The resource-constrained critical path is known as critical chain.

Critical chain method uses the concept of buffers and buffer management.

Buffer placed at the end of the critical chain is known as the project buffer and it protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain.

Additional buffers known as feeding buffers are placed at each point.

Feeding buffers protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains.

------------

Resource leveling and Resource Smoothing

------
Modeling techniques:

What-If Scenario Analysis
Simulation

----
Schedule compression

Crashing - by adding resources
Fast tracking - activities or phases are performed in parallel.

-----------

Schedule Baseline

--------
Performance reviews:

Trend analysis
Critical path method
Critical chain method
Earned value management:


Project Integration Management - PMBOK

PIM includes the processes and ativities to identify, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process groups.

Develop Project Charter
The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

Key benefits:
  well-defined project start and project boundaries
  creation of formal record of the project
  direct way for senior management to formally accept and commit to the project

Project charter inputs for:
    Plan Scope management, Collect requirements, Define scope, Plan Schedule management, Plan Cost management, Plan Risk management, identify stakeholders, Develop Project management plan.

Authorized by the sponsoring entity.  Project manager participates in the development of project charter.

Projects initiated by external entity to the project such as Sponsor, program or project management office (PMO) staff person, or a portfolio governing body chairperson or authorized representative.

Projects are initiated due to internal needs or external influences.

Project charter is not a contract.

Inputs:

Project Statement of work:  narrative description of products, services or results to be delivered by a project.
    Business need (market demand, technological advance, legal requirement, government regulation or environmental consideration) / Product scope description / Strategic plan

Business case:

Agreements:  initial intentions of the project.  may take  the form of contracts, memorandum of understandings (mous), service level agreement (sla), letter of agreements, letters of intent, verbal agreements, email  or other written agreements.  Typically contract is used when being peformed by an external customer.

Enterprise environmental factors:
Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment :
Facilitation Techniques : Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management.

Outputs:

Project charter: issued by the project initiator or sponsor and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

  • Project purpose or justification
  • Measurable project objectives and related success criteria
  • High-level requirements
  • Assumptions and constraints
  • High-level project description and boundaries
  • High-level risks
  • Summary milestone schedule
  • Summary budget 
  • Stakeholder list
  • Project approval requirements
  • Assigned project manager, responsibility and authority level
  • Name and authority of the sponsor or other persons authoring the project charter

-----------------
Develop Project Management plan

The process of defining, preparing and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan. integrated baselines and subsidiary plans may be included within the project management plan.

Input to
  • Plan Scope management
  • Validate scope
  • Control scope
  • Plan schedule management
  • Control schedule
  • Plan cost management
  • Control costs
  • Plan Quality management
  • Plan Human resource management
  • Plan communications management
  • Control communications
  • Plan risk management
  • Control risks
  • Plan procurement management
  • Control procurement
  • Close procurement
  • Plan stakeholder management
  • Control stakeholder engagement

Inputs:

Project charter:
Outputs from other processes:
  • Communications management plan
  • Cost management plan
  • Human management plan
  • Procurement management plan
  • Process Improvement plan
  • Quality management plan
  • Requirements management plan
  • Risk management plan
  • Schedule management plan
  • Scope management plan
  • Stakeholder management plan
  • Cost baseline
  • Schedule baseline
  • Scope baseline
  • Project management plan updates
Enterprise Environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment:
Facilitation techniques:Brainstorming, conflict resolution, problem solving, and meeting management.

Output:

Project management plan
-------------------------
Direct and Manage Project Work
The process of leading and performing the work defined in the pmp and implementing approved changes to achieve the project's objectives.

Inputs:

Project management plan
Approved change requests
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Project management information system
Meetings

Outputs:

Deliverables
Work performance data
Change requests
Project management plan updates
Project document updates

---------------
Monitor and Control Project Work
The process of tracking, reviewing and reporting project progress against the performance objectives defined in the pmp.


Inputs:

Project management plan
Schedule forecasts
Cost forecasts
Validated changes
Work performance information
Enterprise environmental factors
Organizational process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Analytical techniques
Project management information system
Meetings

Outputs:

Change requests
Work performance reports
Project management plan updates
Project document updates

----------------

Perform Integrated Change Control
The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and the pmp; and communicating their disposition.

Inputs:

Project management plan
Work performance reports
Change requests
EEF
OPAs

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Meetings
Change control board

Outputs:

Approved change requests
Change log
Project management plan updates
Project document updates

----------------
Close Project or Phase
The process of finalizing all activities across all the pm process groups to formally complete the phase or project.

Inputs:

Project management plan
Accepted deliverables
OPAs

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment
Analytical Techniques
Meetings

Outputs:

Final Product, service or result transition
Organizational process assets updates

Important Points VI

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by severity or determination of the effect of failures on the system.

Categories of Forecasting: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forecasting)

Time series method uses historical data as the basis of estimating future outcomes.
Weighted moving average, Moving average, Kalman filtering, Exponential smoothing, Autoregressive moving average (ARMA), Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), Extrapolation, Linear prediction, Trend estimation, Growth curve

Qualitative vs Quantitative methods

Naive approach

Casual / econometric forecasting methods

Judgmental methods

Artificial Intelligence methods


Net Present value of Zero is Break-even, positive is profit and negative is loss.

Quality Assurance department verifies the compliance of projects against the organization's defined policies and processes. This is a proactive and preventive role.

Manage stakeholder engagement process tools and techniques are Communication methods, Interpersonal skills and management skills.

Develop project team has two outputs -> Team performance assessments and Enterprise environmental factors.

Procurement Performance reviews are conducted during the control Procurements process to review the seller's progress towards delivering on project scope, quality, cost and schedule as compared to the contract.  These reviews can be conducted based on Audits and Inspections.

Smoothing (or Accommodating) concentrates on emphasizing areas of agreements rather than areas of difference.

Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practice within an application area.

The close project or phase has two outputs, the final product or service or result transition, and organizational process assets updates.

Close Procurements is an output of Close procurement process.

The probability of achieving cost and time objectives is determined and documented during the perform Quantitative Risk Analysis process.

Hardship clause is sometimes used in relation to Force Majeure, particularly due to the fact that they share similar features and they both cater to situations of changed circumstances.

Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is the inverse of Cost Benefit ratio.

A risk arising as a result of implementing a Risk Response plan for a different risk is called  Secondary risk.

Residual risk is risk that remains from the initial risk after a Risk Response plan has been implemented.

Project charter does not require a change request.

Deflection or transfer of risk to another party is a type of Strategy for negative risks.

TCPI greater than 1 means hard to complete.

A complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional field, project management field or an area of specialization is known as Knowledge area.

Summary Budget is arrived at during the Initiation phase of the project. (Project charter)

Historical records during closing are useful to Predict trends, and highlight problems for future projects.

Definitive terms of a contract are written during the Award phase.

Reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the possibility of its occurrence is Risk Avoidance.

Gantt charts are great for Tracking actual vs planned and Optimum Resource utilization.  Gantt charts gives quick insights into task schedules and resource utilizations.

Design of Experiments (DOE) identifies which factors may influence specific variables of a process or product.

The purposes of quality audit is to identify lessons learned that can improve performance on the project.


Saturday, January 24, 2015

Important Points - V

Change requests can occur due to : an external event such as a change in government regulation, An error or omission in defining the scope of the product, An error or omission in defining the scope of the project.

Project Management Plan is A formal, approved document used to guide project execution, monitoring, and control.

The most important criteria in deciding to initiate a project selection method is Environmental consideration.


Important Points IV

Historical information, Risk control procedures and Organizational policies are Organizational Process Assets and not environmental factors.

A "no-contest clause" also called an "In Terrorem clause", is a clause in a legal document that is designed to threaten someone, usually with litigation or criminal prosecution, into acting, refraining from acting, or ceasing to act.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No-contest_clause 

As a Project manager, you are responsible for not only being honest in all your actions but also for exposing dishonest transactions when you encounter them and for notifying the proper authorities so that disciplinary actions can be taken against the offenders.

"Rule of Seven" - Seven data points in a row falling on one side of the mean

Manage Stakeholder Engagement process contains four inputs : Stakeholder Management plan, Communications Management plan, Change log, Organizational Process assets.

Bidder conference also known as pre-bid conference, vendor conference or contract conference.

Cost Management plan, Schedule Management plan, Quality management plan and Scope baseline are inputs to the Identify risks process.

Seller Proposals are normally evaluated by a multi-discipline committee with expertise in many different areas (Expert judgment).

The project management team is responsible for project management while the project team is responsible for project execution.

The important thing to remember is any time an issue arises, you should immediately document the issue in the issue log and monitor the issue until it has been resolved.

Staffing management plan lists recognition and reward criteria.

Sunk cost is unrecoverable cost.

Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect Project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction, quality and risks.  It could also result in probability of success and ultimately in project cancellation.

Crashing is a schedule compression technique that is performed by allocating more resources or approved by over time.

Business need and Cost-benefit analysis are contained in the business case and are used to justify the project.  Business case eg:  legal requirement, customer request, technological advance

Observation and Conversation are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of the project team members.  The project management team monitors the project team's progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members and interpersonal issues.

Analogous estimate is generally less costly , less time consuming and less accurate.

Project management plan should be updated for any changes in scope, cost and schedule baselines after a change request is approved but before it is implemented.

Manage Communications plan has 4 inputs : Communication management plan, work performance reports, EEF, OPA

Corrective action is an activity that realigns the performance of the project work with the project management plan.

Risk avoidance involves changing the Project management plan to avoid threat entirely.  The most extreme avoidance strategy is to terminate the project.

Run charts show trends of processes and variation over time and can be used for analyzing technical, cost or schedule performance.  Similar to control charts but lack upper and lower control limits.

Correspondence between the buyer and seller will result in Organizational Process assets.

A Status Report is a formal and official document used to communicate with stakeholders.

Schedule performance measurements, such as Schedule Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the original schedule baseline.

group-decision making techniques -> Plurality, Unanimity, Dictatorship and Majority.

Level of effort (LOE) is a support-type activity. (eg. seller or customer liaison activity, project cost accounting activity, project management activity)

Scoring models -> benefit measurement method (http://www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/project_selection_method.htm)

Plan communication management is the process of determining project stakeholder information needs and defining a communications approach.


Friday, January 23, 2015

Procurement Management - Tools and Techniques - PMBOK

Make or buy analysis
Expert judgment
Market research
Meetings

Bidder conference
Proposal evaluation techniques
Independent estimates
Expert judgment
Advertising
Analytical techniques
Procurement negotiations

Contract change control system
Procurement performance reviews
Inspections and audits
Performance reporting
Payment systems
Claims administration
Records management system

Procurement audits
Procurement negotiations



Procurement Management - PMBOK

Plan Procurement Management -  The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach and identifying potential sellers.

Conduct Procurements - The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

Control Procurements -  The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate.

Close Procurements - The process of completing each project procurement.



Control Risks - PMBOK

Inputs

  • Project management plan
  • Risk Register
  • Work performance data
  • Work performance reports

Tools and Techniques

  • Risk reassessment
  • Risk audits
  • Variance and trend analysis
  • Technical performance measurement
  • Reserve analysis
  • Meetings

Outputs

  • Work performance information
  • Change requests
  • Project management plan updates
  • Project documents updates
  • Organization process assets updates

Plan Risk Responses - PMBOK

Plan Risk Response is the process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to protect objectives.

Inputs

  • Risk management plan
  • Risk register

Tools and Techniques

  • Strategies for negative risks or threats
  • Strategies for positive risks or opportunities
  • Contingent response strategies
  • Expert judgment

Outputs

  • Project management plan updates
  • Project document updates

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis - PMBOK

Perform Quantitative Risk analysis is the process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.

Inputs:

  • Risk Management plan
  • Cost Management plan
  • Schedule Management plan
  • Risk Register
  • EEF
  • OPAs
Tools and Techniques:
  • Data gathering and representation techniques (Interviewing, Probability distributions {Beta, Triangular})
  • Quantitative risk analysis and modeling techniques (Sensitivity analysis {Tornado diagram}, Expected Monetary value analysis {Decision Tree}, Modeling and simulation) 
  • Expert judgment
Outputs:
  • Project document updates (Probabilistic analysis of the project, Probability of achieving cost and time objectives, Prioritized list of quantified risks, Trend in quantitative risk analysis results)

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis - PMBOK

Process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and risk.

Inputs:

  • Risk Management plan
  • Scope baseline
  • Risk register
  • EEF
  • OPAs


Tools and Techniques:

  • Risk probability and impact assessment
  • Probability and impact matrix
  • Risk data quality assessment
  • Risk categorization
  • Risk urgency assessment
  • Expert judgment
3 strategies to deal with threats or risks that may have negative impacts are: avoid, transfer and mitigate.

Fourth strategy is accept can be used for both negative as well as positive risks.

Avoidance and mitigate are good strategies for high impact and transfer and accept is for lower impact.

Cost-plus contract may transfer the cost risk to the buyer, while a fixed-price contract may transfer risk to the seller.

Outputs

  • Project document updates

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Identify Risks - PMBOK

Inputs:


  • Risk management plan
  • Cost management plan
  • Schedule management plan
  • Quality management plan
  • Human resource management plan
  • Scope baseline
  • Activity cost estimates
  • Activity duration estimates
  • Stakeholder register
  • Project documents
  • Procurement documents
  • EEF
  • OPA


Tools and Techniques:


  • Document reviews
  • Information gathering techniques : Brain storming, Delphi technique, Interviewing, Root cause analysis
  • Checklist analysis
  • Assumptions analysis
  • Diagramming techniques : Cause and effect diagrams, System or process flow charts, Influence diagrams
  • SWOT analysis : Strengths, Weaknesses, opportunities and threats 
  • Expert judgment


Outputs:


  • Risk register : List of identified risks, EVENT may occur causing IMPACT, or if CAUSE exists, EVENT may occur leading to EFFECT., List of potential responses

Plan Risk Management - PMBOK

Inputs:

Project Management Plan: 
Project Charter
Stakeholder register
EEF
OPA

Tools and Techniques:

Analytical techniques
Expert judgment
Meetings

Outputs:

Risk management plan: Includes Methodology, Roles and Responsibilities, Budgeting, Timing, Risk categories, Definition of Risk probability and impact, Probability and impact matrix,Revised stakeholder tolerances, Reporting formats, Tracking


Project Risk Management - PMBOK

Plan Risk Management : Process of identifying how to conduct risk management activities for a project.

Identify Risks: Process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics.

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis:  Process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis:  Process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.

Plan Risk Responses: Process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.

Control Risks:  Process of implementing risk response plans,tracking identifying risks,monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.



Known risks that cannot be managed proactively, should be assigned a Contingency reserve.

Unknown risks cannot be managed proactively and therefore may be assigned a Management reserve.

A negative project risk that has occurred is considered an issue.

A risk appetite -> degree of uncertainty an entity is willing to take on in anticipation of a reward.

Risk tolerance -> degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or individual can withstand

Risk threshold -> measures along the line of uncertainty or the level of impact at which a stakeholder may have a specific interest.  Below that risk threshold, the organization will accept the risk.  above will not tolerate the risk.

Positive and negative risks are commonly referred to as Opportunities and Threats.



Control Quality - pairs of terms


  • Prevention (keeping errors out of the process) and Inspection (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer)
  • Attributes sampling (the result either conforms or does not conform, yes/no) and variables sampling (the result is continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity)
  • Tolerances (specified range of accepted results) and control limits (that identify the boundaries of common variation in a statistically stable process or process performance)



Perform Quality Assurance - Tools and Techniques

It uses the tools and techniques of Plan Quality Management and Control Quality processes.  In addition:

Affinity diagrams
Process decision program charts (PDPC)
Interrelationship diagraphs
Tree diagrams
Prioritization matrices
Activity network diagrams (AOA, AON)
Matrix diagrams

Quality audits

Process analysis


Plan Quality Management - Tools and Techniques

Cost - Benefit Analysis

Cost of Quality : all costs included over the life of the product.  Failure costs are often categorized into internal (found by the project) and external (found by the customer).  Failure costs are also called costs of poor quality.

Cost of Conformance                         Cost of Non-Conformance
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Prevention Costs                                   Internal failure costs
    Training                                                Rework
    Document Process                                Scrap
    Equipment
    Time to do it right
Appraisal Costs                                     External failure costs
    Testing                                                   Liabilities
    Destructive Testing Loss                       Warranties
    Inspections                                             Lost business


Seven Basic Quality Tools:   Cause and effect diagrams aka fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams, Flow charts,  Check sheets, Pareto diagram, Histograms, Control charts, Scatter diagram

A process is considered out of control when (1) a data point exceeds a control limit (2) seven consecutive plot points are above the mean or (3) seven consecutive plot points are below the mean.

Control charts may be also used to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume and frequency of scope changes or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control.

Scattered diagrams, plot ordered pairs (X,Y) and aka correlation charts.  The direction of correlation may be proportional (positive correlation), inverse (negative correlation) or a pattern of correlation may not exist (zero correlation)

Benchmarking

Design of Experiments

Statistical Sampling

Additional Quality planning tools :  Brainstorming, Force field analysis, Nominal group technique, Quality management and control tools

Meetings


Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Important points III

Purpose of Records Management system in procurement management is to manage contract and procurement documentation and records.

Performance Measurement baseline is the total approved plan for the project work to which the project execution is compared.  PMB integrates scope, cost, and schedule parameters.  Planned value is also called as PMB.

Before closing, review of scope baseline is done to ensure completion.

Process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats is known as Plan Risk Responses.

Risk Register updates are performed in the control risks process to close the risks that are no longer applicable and to release their associative reserves.

Monitor and control work is about tracking, reviewing and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.

Procurement Negotiations are performed in both the Conduct procurements and close procurements process.

Plan Procurement process outputs - Procurement documents, Source Selection criteria, Make-or-buy decisions

Risk Responses are developed during the planning phase, whereas implementing a risk response is done during the monitor and control phase.

Most extensive approval process is the contract.

Measuring performance is carried out in the Monitor and Control Project work process.

Control limits define the boundaries of common variation and tolerances specify the range of acceptable results.

Risk Register is the sole output of Identify Risks.

Risk Register updates is the output of all project risk management processes that follow the identify risks process including : Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis, Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis, Plan Risk Responses and Control Risks.

Minimum Payback period needs to be chosen.

Manage Communication Process inputs :- Communications Management plan, Organizational Process Assets, Work performance reports, Enterprise Environmental factors

Receiving Vendor contract proposals :- Conduct procurements - process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.

The difference between Late Finish and Early start is equal to the activity's duration plus activity's float.

Perform Control scope to detect unauthorized changes.

Plan Human Resources management identifies and documents project roles, responsibilities, required skills, and relationships by creating a staffing management plan.

Statistical sampling and inspection are tools and techniques used in the Control quality process.

Parkinson's law states that work expands to fill the time available for its completion.

Control Risks :- Process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks and evaluating risk process effectiveness

Corrective Action, Preventive Action and Defect Repair requests are the outputs of Direct and manage project work.


Sunday, January 18, 2015

Important points II

Control Quality should be completed prior to the Validate Scope process.

Regular assessment of team skills should be performed as part of the Develop Project Team process.

Withdrawing/Avoiding - to retreat from an actual or potential conflict situation.

Direct and Manage Project work - outputs -  Deliverables, Work performance data, Change Requests, Project document updates, Project management plan updates

Resolve the root cause of the problem.

Cultural Norms : how to approach performing the work, methods considered acceptable, influential in facilitating the performance of work.

Communications management plan contains project escalation procedures.

Procurement contract is a mutually binding legal document between the buyer and the seller.

Modeling Technique - includes What-if scenario Analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.

Progressive Elaboration - Continually detailing and improving a plan.

Risk Register - contains triggers, symptoms, warning signs of risk occurrence

% complete * BAC = EV.

Procurement Performance Review a tool and technique of Control procurements.

Cause and effect diagram is also known as fishbone diagram or Ishikawa diagram.

Actual work performance information is an output of Control Schedule process.

Total Float : Amount of time can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint.

Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope, and managing changes to the Scope Baseline.  Changes to Scope Baseline are approved or rejected during the control scope process.

Manage Project team outputs :  EEF updates, OPA updates, Project document updates, Change Requests, Project management plan updates.

Quality management methodologies include Plan-Do-Check-act cycle, Six sigma, lean sigma, Quality function deployment, CMMI, etc.

Deliverables must be within the agreed control limit specifications.

Acknowledging is actively listening.

All final deliverables must match the requirements.
S
Project Schedule Network diagram -  schematic display of project's schedule activities and the logical relationships between them.

Risk Breakdown structure : helps group potential causes of risk.

Project Management Office (PMO) expertise is considered as a tool in the Develop Project Charter process.

Perform Integrated change control - process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables.

Earned value measurement is the value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for an activity or work breakdown structure.

Project Manager is responsible for managing stakeholder engagement on a project.

Standard Deviation (SD) = (P-O) / 6

Control Procurement process - outputs - Project document updates, change requests, organizational process updates, Project management plan updates, work performance information.

Both are not good:
CPI < 1 - Over budget;
SPI < 1 - behind schedule

Work performance information is collected during monitoring and control project work.

Range of an estimate given in positive and negative percentages is called the confidence interval of the estimate.

Estimate activity durations does not use information from the work package in the WBS.  Uses information from Risk Registers, Resource calendars, Project scope statement.

Stakeholder management plan - no sensitive info.

Subdivide the work packages into smaller, more manageable components called activities is called Decomposition.

Important points I

Budgeted cost of work performed on a Project is Earned Value.

Matrix - type of organization where functional managers and project managers share power and authority.

Strong Matrix/Projectized - full-time project managers with considerable authority and full-time project administrative staff.

Weak matrix - like coordinating with other divisions, do not have direct authority

Management Reserves - reserves for unplanned changes, such as managing new risks that were not identified during management planning.

Contingency Reserves - reserves for planned risks. (Cost management, Risk management and Time management)

Cost-to-Benefit Ratio : higher the better.  Project A 1:2 and Project B 1:3, pick Project B.

Resource Histogram and Responsibility Assignment matrix - both used in planning Human resource management process.

Stakeholder influence high during start of the project and decreases in the Execution phase.

EAC Formulas :   Actual Cost + (BAC - EV)
                             BAC/CPI
                             Actual Cost + Bottom up estimate
                            AC + [(BAC - EV)/(CPI*SPI)]

To complete Performance Index (TCPI) : (BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC)

Resource Calendars : find information about the availability of team members.

 Updates can happen in Stakeholder management plan during Control Stakeholder management plan.

Alternate dispute resolution (ADR) : to attempt to reach a mutually agreeable solution.

Litigation in the courts is the last option.

Total planned value is the sum of Planned value.  It is also the Budget at Completion (BAC)

Cost of quality includes training, rework, review, quality planning etc.

During Manage Stakeholder Engagement process, identifying stakeholders is not performed.

Estimate Activity Resources tool - Scheduling software tool.

Unapproved changes can be identified during Perform Integrated change control.

Staffing Management plan : Training needs, Compliance, Resource calendars are part.

Perform Quality Assurance process involves auditing the quality requirements and the results from the Quality control measurements to ensure that the desired quality standards and operational definitions have been used to produce the deliverables.  (Quality metrics, Process Improvement plan, Control Quality measurements,Quality management plan, Project documents - inputs) (change requests, project management plan updates, project document updates, organizational process updates - outputs)

Friday, January 16, 2015

Project Human Resource Management - PMBOK

Managing and leading the project team includes :
   Influencing the project team
   Professional and ethical behavior

Plan Human Resource Management

Inputs:

Project management plan / Activity resource requirements / EEF / OPAs

Tools and Techniques:

Organizational charts and Position Descriptions {Hierarchical type charts, Matrix based charts (RAM) - ex: Responsible, Accountable, Consult, Inform, Text oriented formats} / Networking / Organizational theory / Expert Judgment / Meetings

Output:

Human Resource Management plan {Roles and Responsibilities, Project Organization chart, Staffing management plan (Staff acquisition, Resource calendars - Resource Histogram, Staff Release plan, Training needs, Recognition and rewards, compliance, Safety)
________

Acquire Project Team

Inputs:

Human Resource Management plan /  EEF / OPAs

Tools and Techniques:

Pre-assignment / Negotiation / Acquisition / Virtual teams / Multi-criteria decision analysis

Outputs:

Project Staff assignments / Resource calendars / Project Management plan updates

________
Develop Project Team

Inputs:

Human Resource Management plan  / Project staff assignments / Resource calendars

Tools and Techniques:

Interpersonal skills / Training / Team building activities  { Tuckman ladder - 5 stages of development that teams may go thru - Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning } / Ground rules / Colocation / Recognition and Rewards / Personnel Assessment tools

Outputs:

Team performance assessments / EEF updates
________
Manage Project Team

Inputs:

Human Resource Management plan / Project staff assignments / Team Performance Assessments / Issue log / Work Performance reports /  Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Observation and Conversation / Project Performance Appraisals / Conflict management  { 5 general techniques for resolving conflict - Withdraw/Avoid, Smooth/Accommodate, Compromise/Reconcile, Force/Direct, Collaborate/Problem Solve} / Interpersonal skills {Leadership, Influencing, Effective decision making }

Outputs:

Change Requests / Project Management plan updates / Project documents updates / Enterprise Environmental factors updates / Organizational Process assets updates

Quality Management (II) - PMBOK

Project Quality Management addresses the management of the project and the deliverables of the project.
Quality and grade are not the same concepts.

Quality is the "degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements" (ISO 9000)[10]. 

Grade is a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.

While a quality level that fails to meet quality requirements is always a problem, a low grade of quality may not be a problem.

The project management team should determine the appropriate levels of accuracy and precision for use in the quality management plan.

Precision is a measure of exactness.
Accuracy is an assessment of correctness.
Arrows clustered tightly in one area of the target, even if they are not clustered in the bull's eye, are considered to have high precision.
Targets where the arrows are more both tightly grouped and within the bull's eye are considered to be both accurate and precise.

Quality management approaches seek to minimize variation : Customer satisfaction/Prevention over inspection/Continuous improvement (PDCA - Plan-Do-Check-Act - defined by Shewart and modified by Deming, Total Quality Management [TQM],Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, Malcolm Baldridge, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model [OPM3], Capability Maturity Model Integrated [CMMI])/Management Responsibility/Cost of Quality [COQ]
 --------- Plan Quality Management: Inputs: Project Management Plan (Scope baseline, WBS, WBS dictionary, Schedule baseline, Cost baseline, other management plans) / Stakeholder register / Risk register / Requirements documentation / Enterprise Environmental factors / Organizational process assets Tools and Techniques: Cost Benefit Analysis/Cost of quality (coq)/Seven Basic Quality tools [Cause and effect diagrams {aka Fishbone diagrams, Ishikawa diagrams}, Flow charts, Checksheets {tally sheets}, Pareto diagrams, Histograms, Control charts, Scatter diagrams {correlation diagrams}] / Benchmarking / Design of experiments / Statistical sampling / Additional Quality Planning Tools {Brainstorming, Force field analysis, Nominal group technique, Quality Management and control tools} / Meetings Outputs: Quality Management plan / Process Improvement plan {Process boundaries, Process configuration, Process metrics, Targets for improved performance} / Quality Metrics / Quality checklist / Project Document updates ----- Perform Quality Assurance: Is the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. Facilitates improvement of quality processes. Inputs: Quality Management plan / Process Improvement plan / Quality Metrics / Quality Control Measurements / Project documents Tools and Techniques : Quality Management and control tools {Affinity diagrams, Process decision program charts(PDPC), Interrelationship digraphs, Tree diagrams (aka systematic diagrams), Prioritization matrices, Activity network diagrams (include both Activity on Arrow (AOA) and Activity on Node(AON)), Matrix diagrams, Quality audits, Process analysis Outputs: Change Requests / Project Management plan updates / Project document updates / Organizational process assets updates ----------- Control Quality: Control Quality is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. Prevention - Keeping errors out of the process inspection - keeping errors out of the hands of the customer Attribute sampling - the result either conforms or does not conform Variables sampling - the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity Tolerances - specified range of acceptable results Control limits - that identifies the boundaries of common variation in a statistically stable process or process performance Inputs: Project Management plan / Quality Metrics { function points, mean time between failure, mean time to repair } / Quality checklists / Work performance data / Approved change requests / Deliverables / Project documents / Organizational process assets Tools and Techniques: Seven basic quality tools / Statistical sampling / Inspection / Approved change requests review Outputs: Quality control measurements / Validated changes / Verified deliverables {input to validate scope for formal acceptance} / Work performance information / Change requests / Project management plan updates / Project document updates / Organizational Process assets updates

Quality Management - PMBOK

Plan Quality Management
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Project Management Plan
Stakeholder Register
Risk Register
Requirements Documentation
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Cost-benefit analysis
Cost of Quality
Seven basic quality tools
Benchmarking
Design of experiments
Statistical sampling
Additional quality planning tools
Meetings
Quality Mangement Plan
Process Improvement plan
Quality Metrics
Quality checklists
Project document updates

Perform Quality Assurance
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality control measurements
Project documents
Quality management and control tools
Quality audits
Process Analysis
Change requests
Project management plan updates
Project document updates
Organization process assets updates

Control Quality
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Project Management Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality checklists
Work performance data
Approved change requests
Deliverables
Project Documents
Organizational Process Assets
Seven basic quality tools
Statistical sampling
Inspection
Approved change requests review
Quality control measurements
Validated changes
Verified deliverables
Work performance information
Change requests
Project management plan updates
Organizational Process assets updates

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Project Cost Management (II) - PMBOK

Plan cost management is the process that establishes the policies,procedures and documentation for planning, managing and controlling project costs.

Input:

Project Management plan (Scope baseline, Schedule baseline, Other information)

Project charter

Enterprise Environment factors

Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment/Analytical Techniques (pay back period, return on investment, internal rate of return, discounted cash flow and net present value)/Meetings

Output:

Cost Management plan

Units of measure, Level of precision, Level of accuracy, Organizational procedure links, Control thresholds, Rules of performance measurement, Reporting formats, Process descriptions, Additional details

------

Estimate Costs:

Estimate costs is the process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities.  Amount of cost required to complete project work.

Project in the initiation phase may have a rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimate in the range of -25% to +75%.  Later, more info is known, definitive estimates could narrow the range of accuracy to -5% to +10%.

Costs are estimated for labor, materials, equipment, services and facilities, as well as special categories such as inflation allowance, cost of financing, or contingency costs.

Inputs:

Cost Management plan/Human Resource management plan/Scope baseline (Project scope statement, WBS, WBS dictionary)/Project Schedule/Risk Register/Enterprise Environmental Factors/Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Expert judgment / Analogous Estimating / Parametric Estimating / Bottom-up Estimating / Three-point  Estimating / Reserve Analysis (contingency reserves - "known-unknowns" & Management reserves - "unknown-unknowns") / Cost of Quality (COQ) / Project management software / Vendor bid analysis / Group Decision-making Techniques

Outputs:

Activity cost estimates / Basis of Estimates / Project document updates

-------------

Determine Budget

Inputs:

Cost Management plan / Scope Baseline (Project Scope statement, WBS, WBS dictionary) / Activity Cost estimates / Basis of estimates / Project schedule / Resource calendars / Risk Register / Agreements / Organizational Process Assets

Tools and Techniques:

Cost Aggregation / Reserve Analysis / Expert judgment / Historical Relationships / Funding limit reconciliation

Outputs:

Cost Baseline /  Project funding requirements / Project document updates

-----------

Control Costs

Inputs:

Project Management plan (cost baseline, Cost management plan) / Project funding requirements / Work performance data / Organization process assets

Tools and Techniques:

Earned Value management is a methodology that combines scope, schedule and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.

Planned Value (PV): authorized budget assigned to schedule work (not includes management reserve).  The total planned value for the project is also known as budget at completion (BAC)

Earned Value (EV): is a measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work.  budget associated with the authorized work that has been completed.

Actual Cost (AC) : realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specified time period.

Schedule Variance (SV) : difference between the earned value and the planned value.  (EV-PV).  Schedule variance will be 0 when the project is completed.

Cost Variance (CV) :   difference between the earned value and actual cost.  (EV-AC).  Negative CV is often difficult for the project to recover.

Schedule Performance Index (SPI) : expressed as a ratio of Earned value  to planned value (EV/PV).  Less than 1, less work completed than planned.
Greater than 1, more work completed than planned

Cost Performance Index (CPI) :  expressed as a ratio of Earned value to actual cost (EV/AC)

Less than 1 -> cost overrun for work completed
Greater than 1 -> cost underrun of performance to date.

S-Curves

Forecasting :
Estimate at completion (EAC) : EACs are typically based on actual costs incurred for work completed, plus an estimate to Complete (ETC).

EAC = AC + Bottom-up ETC.

EAC forecast for ETC work performed at the budgeted rate : EAC = AC + (BAC -EV)

EAC forecast for ETC work performed at the present CPI : EAC = BAC / CPI

EAC forecast for ETC work considering both SPI and CPI factors : EAC = AC + [(BAC - EV)/(CPI*SPI)]

To-complete performance index (TCPI): expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget.  TCPI = (BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC) or (BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC)


Performance reviews:

Variance at completion VAC = BAC - EAC
Trend analysis
Earned value performance

Project Management Software:

Reserve Analysis:

Outputs:

Work performance information / Costs forecasts / Change requests / Project management plan updates  (Cost baseline, cost management plan) / Project document updates / Organizational process assets


Project Cost Management - PMBOK

Plan Cost Management
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Project Management Plan
Project Charter
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Expert Judgment
Analytical Techniques
Meetings
Cost Mangement Plan

Estimate Costs
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Cost Management Plan
Human Resources Management Plan
Scope Baseline
Project Schedule
Risk Register
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Expert Judgment
Analogous Estimating
Parametric Estimating
Bottom-up Estimating
Three Point Estimating
Reserve Analysis
Cost of Quality
Project Management software
Vendor Bid Analysis
Group decision-making techniques
Activity cost estimates
Basis of estimates
Project document updates

Determine Budgets
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Cost Management Plan
Scope Baseline
Activity cost estimates
Basis of estimates
Project schedule
Resource calendars
Risk Register
Agreement
Organizational Process Assets
Cost aggregation
Reserve analysis
Expert judgment
Historical relationships
Funding limit reconciliation
Cost baseline
Project funding requirements
Project document updates

Control Costs
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Project Management Plan
Project funding requirements
Work performance data
Organizational Process Assets
Earned value management
Forecasting
To-complete performance Index (TCPI)
Performance reviews
Project Management software
Reserve analysis
Work performance information
Cost forecasts
Change requests
Project Management plan updates
Project document updates
Organizational process assets updates

Review of movie I

Movie : I
Main Actors : Vikram, Amy Jackson, Santhanam
Director : Sankar
Story : Sankar
Photography : PC Sriram

I went with an expectation of "Brahmandam" for this movie and the technology he has used.  He has not disappointed me on that.

The movie revolves in an elliptical orbit.  If you keep the story as sun, interest as earth, initially it starts from the perigee position and goes to apogee during interval break and then traverse back to perigee in the second half.

Plot is regular Sankar story.  However, the way he has taken needs to be appreciated.

Vikram and his company of body builders needs to be given full credit.  Vikram should have worked really hard to bring down his weight up and down.

The final message of the story is with love nothing else matters!!  I like that message.

Santhanam comedy is good.

Mersalaitaen, Google ah moodu, youtube ah pothu dialogues will take off for this generation.

Photography is excellent.  PC Sriram has not taken in much darkness, his usual touch.

We should watch one time definetly.

Everybody Loves Raymond - Debra's birthday party

When I was driving my son to school this morning, I heard in the radio a husband wishing his wife a happy Birthday.  RJ was asking for his wife's name and he was answering something else.  His wife behind was poking him about that and I was able to overhear.  It reminded me of the serial Every body Loves Raymond - Debra's birthday party and how Raymond reveals the secret to everyone and no more a secret.  The embarrassment of Debra during surprise and the comment by her FIL "You do.." is chance less and it is top in my comedy list.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Time Management - Tools and Techniques

Network diagrams:

  • Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
  • Arrow diagramming method (ADM)
  • Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
PDM is also known as Activity-On-Node (AON)

___________________________________________________________________________________

Four types of logical relationship between activities:

Finish to Start [FS] : Activity must finish before the successor can start.
Start to Start [SS] : An activity must start before the successor can start.
Finish to Finish [FF] : An activity must finish before the successor can finish.
Start to Finish [SF] : An activity must start before the successor can finish.  (rarely used)

___________________________________________________________________________________

Graphical Evaluation Review Technique [GERT]

Types of dependencies:
    Mandatory dependency (Hard logic)
    Discretionary dependency (preferred or soft logic)
    External dependency
___________________________________________________________________________________
Leads and Lags : Lead may be used to indicate that an activity can start before its predecessor activity is completed.   
Lag is inserted waiting time between activities.
___________________________________________________________________________________
Estimation   (important points)
  • Should be based on WBS
  • Should be done by the person doing work
  • Historical info 
  • Schedule, cost and scope baselines
  • Project schedule and budget
  • may periodically recalculate the estimate to complete (ETC)
___________________________________________________________________________________
Padding:  Guessing extra time or cost added to an estimate because of not enough info. (should not be followed)
___________________________________________________________________________________
Estimate Activity Resources:  Resources include equipment and materials as well as people
___________________________________________________________________________________
Estimate Activity Durations:
  •   Analogous estimating
  •   Parametric estimating
  •   Three-point estimating [PERT Analysis] : Optimistic(O), Pessimistic(P) and Most Likely (M)
    •     Expected activity duration (Beta distribution) = (P+4M+O)/6
    •     Expected activity duration (Triangular distribution) = (P+M+O)/3
    •     Activity Standard deviation = (P-O)/6
    •     Activity Variance = [(P-O)/6]^2
  •   Reserve Analysis : Contingency reserve & Management reserve
  •   One-point estimating
  •   Regression analysis : [Scatter diagram]
  •   Heuristics means rule of thumb
  •   80/20 rule : 80% of quality problems are caused by 20% of potential source problem.
___________________________________________________________________________________
Develop Schedule:
  • Compress the schedule by crashing, fast tracking and re-estimating
    • Crashing - if time must change, what option will cause the least impact on cost.  Crashing by definition, always results in increased costs.  
  • Simulate the project using Monte Carlo analysis to determine the likelihood of completing the project as scheduled
  • Level Resources if necessary
  • Schedule Network Analysis
    • Critical Path Method
    • Schedule compression
    • What-if scenario analysis
      • Monte-Carlo analysis uses computer software to simulate the outcome of a project, based on three point estimate.  Monte-Carlo analysis can help deal with "path convergence".  Monte-Carlo analysis also used as a risk management tool to quantitatively analyze risks.
    • Resource leveling - Leveling lengthens the  schedule & increase cost in order to deal with a limited amount of resources, availability and other constraints.
    • Critical chain method - take into account both activity and resource dependencies
___________________________________________________________________________________
Float (slack) : 3 types of float are :
Total float (slack):  Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date or an intermediary milestone.
Float & slack means the same thing.
Free Float (Slack) : Amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor.
Project float (slack) : Amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally important project completion date.

Activities on the critical path have zero float.

Float = Late Start(LS) - Early Start (ES)
Float = Late Finish (LF) - Early Finish (EF)

___________________________________________________________________________________



Tools and Techniques for Project Time Management - PMBOK


  • Schedule Management Plan
    • Expert Judgment 
    • Analytical Techniques
    • Meetings
  • Define activities
    • Expert Judgment
    • Decomposition
    • Rolling wave planning
  • Sequence Activities
    • Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
    • Dependency determination
    • Leads and Lags
  • Estimate Activity Resources
    • Expert Judgment
    • Alternative analysis
    • Published estimating data
    • Bottom-up estimating
    • Project Management software
  • Estimate Activity Durations
    • Expert Judgment
    • Analogous estimating
    • Parametric estimating
    • Three-point estimating
    • Group decision making techniques
    • Resource analysis
  • Develop Schedule
    • Schedule network analysis
    • Critical Path method (CPM)
    • Critical Chain method
    • Resources Optimization techniques
    • Modeling technique
    • Lead and Lags
    • Schedule compression
    • Schedule tools
  • Control Schedule
    • Performance Review
    • Project Management Software
    • Resource optimization techniques
    • Modeling techniques
    • Leads and Lags
    • Schedule compression
    • Scheduling tool

Plan Schedule Management - PMBOK


  • Plan Schedule Management
Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Project Management Plan
Project Charter
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Expert Judgment
Analytical Techniques
Meetings
Schedule Mangement Plan



  • Define Activities

Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Schedule Management plan
Scope Baseline
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Decomposition
Rolling wave planning
Expert judgment
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone List


  • Sequence Activities

Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Schedule Management plan
Activity Lists
Activity Attributes
Milestone Lists
Project Scope statement
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Precedence Diagramming method (PDM)
Dependency determination
Leads and Lags
Project schedule
Network diagrams
Project document updates

  • Estimate Activity Resources

Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Schedule Management plan
Activity Lists
Activity Attributes
Risk Register
Resouce calendars
Activity cost estimates
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Expert judgment
Alternate Analysis
Published estimating data
Bottom-up estimating
Project Management software
Activity Resource Requirements
Resource Breakdown structure
Project document updates

  • Estimate Activity Durations

Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Schedule Management plan
Activity Lists
Activity Attributes
Activity Resource Requirements
Resouce calendars
Project Scope statement
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Expert judgment
Analogous estimating
Parametric estimating
Three-point estimating
Group decision-making techniques
Resource analysis
Activity duration estimates
Project document updates

  • Develop Schedule

Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
Schedule Management plan
Activity Lists
Activity Attributes
Activity Resource Requirements
Resouce calendars
Activity Duration estimates
Project Scope statement
Risk Register
Staff assignments
Risk Breakdown structure
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Schedule Network analysis
Critical Path Method
Critical Chain Method
Resource optimization techniques
Modeling techniques
Leads and Lags
Schedule compression
Schedule tools
Schedule baseline
Project schedule
Schedule date
Project calendars
Project Management Plan updates
Project document updates